Incredibly beautiful and dynamic metropolis - Moscow - daily meets millions of visitors from around the world. Thousands of travelers from all corners of the world's largest country, are taken hourly by nine Moscow railway stations. Each station of the capital is not just an intermediate point for trains and a building for serving passengers, but a historical monument, a work of architecture and engineering.
Created at different times by the efforts of various prominent masters, Moscow railway stations, under the influence of successive trends, modified their names and appearance, while always remaining examples of the perfect combination of aesthetics and functionality. For many, a first meeting with Moscow begins with a visit to one of the stations. We propose not to limit yourself to the point of our arrival or departure, but to make a kind of excursion to all nine stations, which are the main transport gates of the capital.
Leningradsky railway station in Moscow
This is the first railway station in Moscow. Its history began in 1842, when Nicholas I signed a decree on the construction of a railroad, designed to provide transport links between the two largest cities of the empire, St. Petersburg and Moscow. At the same time it was decided to build Petersburg (in Moscow) and Nikolaevsky (in St. Petersburg) railway stations, which are exactly the same as each other. The architectural project, according to which twin stations were created, was carried out by the Russian architect Konstantin Ton, the author of the famous Moscow buildings - the Cathedral of Christ the Savior and the Grand Kremlin Palace.
The construction of the station in Moscow was completed in 1849. The building is designed in the style of high classicism, which is characterized by severity and monumentality, a uniform alternation of decorative elements and symmetrical composition. The central two-storey building, facing the Kalanchevsky (now Komsomolskaya) Square, is crowned with a clock tower, made after Western European Town Halls. Along the perimeter of the facade stretches a low colonnade.
For a century and a half, the station changed its name three times. At birth, the nicknamed Petersburg in 1855 was named Nicholas, after the Civil War became October, and then - Leningrad. In the XX century, the station underwent several reconstructions, which greatly expanded the original construction. At the same time, the central part of the building has been preserved to this day without any changes.
Updated after reconstruction of 2011–2013 Leningradsky Railway Station is a modern European-level service complex with an extensive infrastructure, including a food court, supermarkets, a service center and much more. From the Leningradsky railway station, trains go to St. Petersburg, Petrozavodsk, Tallinn, Helsinki, Novgorod the Great, Murmansk and Pskov.
Address: Komsomolskaya Square, 3
Yaroslavsky railway station in Moscow
Two more stations - Troitsky and Ryazansky - grew up after the Nikolaevsky railway station on Kalanchevskaya Square in the 60s of the XIX century. Today it is the Leningrad, Yaroslavl and Kazan stations on Komsomolskaya Square, popularly known as the “Three Station Square”.
Not only the names, but also the buildings themselves were subject to repeated changes, and the geography of movement expanded. So, the Trinity station initially served the carriage by rail to Sergiev Posad. In 1870, the highway was extended to Yaroslavl, and the station became Yaroslavsky. By the end of the 19th century, the cast iron reached Arkhangelsk, and other directions appeared. The increase in passenger traffic necessitated the creation of a larger station.
The restructuring of the old building was carried out at the turn of the XIX - XX centuries through the efforts of two prominent Russian architects - Lev Kekushev and Fyodor Shekhtel. The latter was the author of the new facade of the building, which was decided in the neo-Russian style. The unique look of the station is created by the decorative elements inherent in the Old Russian architecture: a high roof, a huge entrance arch with a keel-canopy, stylized as serf semi-circular turrets. In the XX century, the station experienced two reconstructions and two renames. In 1922 it became the North, and in 1955 it returned its historical name.
Yaroslavsky railway station became the starting point of the world's longest railway - Transsib. The participants of the Great Buildings of Communism in Siberia and the Far East were sent from his platform. Today it is one of the largest railway stations in the capital, daily serving over 30 pairs of long-distance trains. Yaroslavsky railway station connects Moscow with the cities of the Urals, Siberia, the North and the Far East, as well as with the capitals of China, Mongolia and North Korea.
Address: Komsomolskaya Square, 5
Kazansky railway Station in Moscow
The station that appeared in 1862–1864, initially serving the Moscow-Ryazan Railway, was called Ryazansky. In 1893, traffic was opened by the Moscow-Kazan railroad, which later determined the corresponding renaming, as well as the restructuring of the building that had become close.
The project of a modern railway station was designed by architect Alexei Shchusev, who in the future became famous as the author of Lenin’s Mausoleum. Construction of the complex began in 1913 and was finally completed after almost three decades. The appearance of the Kazan station, designed according to the idea of Nicholas II, to become the eastern gate of Moscow, is a synthesis of Russian and eastern national styles. The architectural dominant of the asymmetric composition, which combines different-sized volumes, was a 73m-high angular multi-tiered tower, styled as the Syuyumbike tower of the Kazan Kremlin. To its left there is a low tower with a clock, on the dial of which the signs of the Zodiac are depicted. During the reconstruction at the end of 1987–1997 the original ensemble of the Kazan station complemented the new corps. At the same time, according to the preserved drawings of A. Shchusev, the Tsar's Tower was erected, where in 2012 the chamber exhibition hall was open. Visitors to the tower can see the paintings of local artists working in the traditions of the Russian classical school.
Today Kazansky railway station is the starting point of several directions: east, south and south-west. From here, branded trains depart daily to Kazan, Voronezh, Samara, Cheboksary, Rostov-on-Don, Adler, Penza and other Russian cities. The station has regular flights to Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan.
Address: Komsomolskaya Square, 2
Belorussky railway station in Moscow
Perhaps the most famous station in Moscow. It is known, above all, due to its historical value. It was from the platforms of the Belorussky railway station in 1941 that the Soviet soldiers went to fight the enemy, the song "Holy War" was performed here for the first time. One of the best motion pictures devoted to the theme of the Great Patriotic War brought the glory to the sights - the film “Belarus Station”.
The station on the Tverskaya Outpost Square has existed since 1870, with the opening of the Moscow-Smolensk Railway. The successive names reflected the expansion of the geography of the directions passing through it: Smolensk, Brest, Belorussian-Baltic. The modern name of the station is from 1936.
The building, which has survived to the present day, acquired a picturesque appearance in 1912. The author of the reconstruction project was a talented engineer-architect Ivan Strukov. The building is an interesting example of the combination of neoclassical trends with elements of the Gothic. For more than a century, the architecture of the station has not undergone major changes. At the same time, Belorussky did not escape the innovations of modernity, which made it possible to implement a variety of services.
The station connects Moscow with the western regions of Russia, with Belarus, Lithuania, the countries of Central and Eastern Europe.
Address: pl. Tverskaya outpost, 7
Kursky railway station in Moscow
Kursk station, leading its chronology since 1866, cannot boast of historical appearance. This gigantic complex of concrete and glass appeared as early as 1972.
Interestingly, in the XIX century the station had not only a different name (Nizhegorodsky), but also a different location. There was then still a wooden building at the Pokrovskaya (now Abelmanovskaya) outpost. Later, the railway lines extended into the city, and in 1896 the station appeared in a more convenient location - on the Garden Ring. It was an elegant neoclassical stone building.
In the XX century, the station experienced two restructuring, the author of which was the master of postconstructivism George Voloshinov. Cardinal transformations did not destroy the old station; its premises became part of the new building. The facade facing the station square was turned into a stained-glass glass surface 15 m high. The roof, made in the form of a 9-meter folded roof, also got its original embodiment. The facility, capable of accommodating about 11 thousand passengers, was considered the largest station in the Soviet Union.
Unlike most of the Moscow railway stations, Kursky is a transit one: the railway does not end there, but passes through the station. The terminal serves fast and passenger trains, as well as suburban electric trains, which operate in two main directions: Kursky and Gorkovsky.
Address: Zemlyanoy Val, 29
Kievsky Station in Moscow
The railway connected Moscow with Bryansk only a year before the beginning of the 20th century. At the same time built a wooden station was, called Bryansky. Thirteen years later, as part of the jubilee celebrations dedicated to the victory in the Patriotic War of 1812, it was decided to create a new structure, designed to become the largest station in Moscow.
By 1918, on the site of the original inconspicuous building, a neo-classicist stone building had grown. Prominent architects of the time, I. Rerberg and V. Oltarzhevsky, worked on his project. The main feature of the composition was the contrast of the high tower and the horizontal building with a colonnade. To date, the mechanical clock, preserved during the construction of the building, has been preserved in the tower. According to the drawings of the famous Russian engineer V. Shukhov, a unique landing stage was made: the vast space above the platforms was covered with glazed steel arches. Unloading dock was reconstructed twice, each time preserving its original appearance.
Station, since 1934 called Kievsky, is the starting point of the Kiev direction of the Moscow railway. From here trains go to Bryansk, major cities of Ukraine, Moldova, to the states of Southern and Southeastern Europe.
Address: pl. Kiev railway station, 1
Paveletsky railway station in Moscow
One of the largest railways that existed in pre-revolutionary Russia was the Ryazan-Ural railway connecting the 12 provinces of the empire. The exit to Moscow was received at the end of the XIX century. And in 1900 (presumably according to the project of A. Krasovsky), a railway station, called Saratovsky, was erected, since the administration of the Ryazan-Ural road was located directly in Saratov.
In the middle of the 20th century, the road ceased to exist; its former sections became part of the Volga, Southeast, and Moscow railways. At the same time, the station changed its name, in honor of the first junction station on the way from Moscow - Pavelets. However, this is not his first renaming. In 1924–1925 the station was Leninsky: it was here in January 1924 that the body of Vladimir Ulyanov (Lenin) was brought from Gorki, Moscow Region. Built before the revolution, the U-127 locomotive, which led the “mourning train”, is today the most valuable exhibit at the Museum of the Moscow Railway, located near the Paveletsky railway station.
In 1987, the station underwent reconstruction, as a result of which its premises were expanded 6 times. At the same time it was managed to maintain the original appearance of the architectural structure. The buildings are symmetrical: the dome overlooks the central part, and the attic is the end of the protruding lateral volumes. The facade facing the station square is lined with decorative brick. Paveletsky railway station is considered to be one of the most beautiful railway stations of the capital.
Trains departing from the Paveletsky railway station head towards the Middle and Lower Volga region, the Central Black Soil Region, to the south of Russia, and also to Kazakhstan.
Address: Paveletskaya Sq., 1
Rizhsky Station in Moscow
The unofficial status of the quietest and most calm railway station in the capital is provided by 8. Rizhsky Station, from whose platforms only three long-distance trains depart daily - to Riga, Velikie Lugi and Pskov.
The station appeared in 1901 to service the Moscow-Vindava railway linking central Russia with non-freezing ports of the Baltic. In the first half of the 20th century, the station managed to change several names: it was Vindavsky, Baltic, Rzhevsky and, finally, Rizhsky. The beautiful building in the pseudo-Russian style, built by architect Julius Diderikhs according to the design of the famous St. Petersburg architect, academician of architecture Stanislav Brzhozovsky, remains unchanged even today.
One of the features of the station was the fact that its building is not located perpendicularly, but parallel to the railway tracks. The architectural composition is a series of "Russian Terem" connected by single-storey transitions. The Riga station has more than once become the backdrop for the filming of national cinema. The picturesque structure was imprinted in the films “Seventeen Moments of Spring”, “The Station for Two”, “Admiral”.
At the beginning of this century, part of the tracks of the Rizhsky railway station turned into an exposition site for railway equipment of the Moscow Railway Museum, which has been open to the public since 2004. In the historic station building there is an inexpensive modern hotel - "Hostel on Riga".
Address: 8. Rizhsky Square, 1
Savelovsky railway station in Moscow
Savelovsky is the only station in Moscow that works exclusively for commuter traffic. However, this was not always the case. Twenty years ago, passenger trains departed from here to little-known settlements in Moscow, Tver, Yaroslavl, Novgorod and Leningrad regions.
The station, as well as the Savelovskaya railway line itself, owes its birth to the famous Russian entrepreneur and philanthropist Savva Mamontov. Built at the turn of the XIX - XX centuries, on his initiative, a new "cast iron" reached the village of Savelovo, which ensured quite fast transportation of cargo from the Volga to Moscow. In the future, it was planned to extend the line to Kalyazin, Uglich and Rybinsk.
The station for the Savelovskaya road was erected in 1902 at the Butyrskaya Outpost and for ten years was called the Butyrsky. It was a small one-story building that did not even have a main entrance from the square. The reconstruction, which made the construction two-storey and increased its internal space 2.5 times, was carried out already in 1987–1992.
At the end of the 20th century, the station was under threat of closure. However, only long-distance trains were transferred from here. Today, Savelovsky Station departs electric trains to Lobnya, Dmitrov, Dubna, Savyolovo, Kostino.
Address: pl. Butyrskaya Outpost, 2
Domodedovo Airport in Moscow
Domodedovo is the largest airport in Russia and Eastern Europe in terms of passenger traffic. Flights are carried out in more than 240 destinations. Domodedovo is one of the twenty busiest airports in Europe. Interestingly, this Moscow aerodrome has two independent parallel runways - that is why at the same time planes here can take off and land.
It was Domodedovo for the first time in Russia that received the largest passenger airliner Airbus 380.
The first passenger flight from Domodedovo was made in 1964 on the route Moscow - Sverdlovsk. The air harbor was originally supposed to serve flights to Siberia, the Far East, Central Asia, the Volga region and the Urals. Only in 1992, the airport received international status.
Two years ago, as part of the World Airport Awards, Domodedovo was recognized as the best airport in Eastern Europe.
Address: Moscow region
Sheremetyevo Airport in Moscow
Sheremetyevo International Airport has been helping Russians and residents of other countries to travel vast distances for more than fifty years. This is one of the three main airports in Moscow, located between the cities of Khimki and Lobnya. It consists of five passenger terminals. Initially, the airport was called Sheremetyevsky - by analogy with the nearby village and station of the Savelovskaya railway. Interestingly, Sheremetyevo, unlike many “brothers”, had its own zest - an unusual-shaped landing building, which the people immediately called “a glass” (demolished in 2015 as part of airport reconstruction). Aeroflot, the national Russian carrier, is based in Sheremetyevo.
Address: Moscow region
Vnukovo Airport in Moscow
Vnukovo is one of the oldest airports in Moscow. On the one hand, today it is the smallest airport hub in terms of the number of passengers; on the other hand, it is the most important, since it is Vnukovo that serves such vip-clients as the Russian president, members of the country's government, high-ranking foreign guests. It should be noted that the airport took over such an important function in the transportation of the country's top officials a long time ago - more than 60 years ago.
Construction of Vnukovo began in 1937 due to congestion of already existing airports - Central and Bykovo. During the Great Patriotic War, it served as a military base, and later it was used for civilian traffic.
Vnukovo serves such VIP clients as the President of Russia, members of the country's government, high-ranking foreign guests.
Address: Moscow region
Airport Ostafyevo in Moscow
Ostafyevo International Airport is located in Moscow, near the South Butovo district. It is a co-location airfield for civil and military aircraft.
In 1934, the "Ostafievo" was created as an airfield of the NKVD, later was transferred to the Ministry of Defense, becoming a military airfield.
In 1997, the government decided to create a joint-based aerodrome, as a result of which it became the seat of the Ministry of Defense and the Aviation Enterprise Gazpromavia in Ostafyevo. Since that time, a large-scale reconstruction of the airport began.
In 2000, the Ostafyevo airport was opened for civilian traffic. In 2007, it received the status of an international airport.
Today, the airport is an international business airport. In this regard, he provides ground support services, as well as the basing of business aircraft, provides visa support, arranges transfer, customs procedures, and escorts of foreign aircraft in Russia.
Address: posyelok Ryazanovskoye
Zhukovsky Airport in Moscow
Zhukovsky Airport is located at the Ramenskoye airfield on the territory of the city of Zhukovsky, Moscow Region, 36 km from the center of Moscow.
Previously, this airfield was used for test flights and as a cargo international airport, but on May 30, 2016, after a large-scale reconstruction, it was open to civil aviation. According to preliminary calculations, Zhukovsky International Airport plans to serve up to 4 million passengers a year.
Address: st. Narkomvod, 3