The very first museum in Urga was at the eighth Jebdzun-dam-hutuhta. The eighth Bogd Khan (Aghvan Lobsan Choiji Danzan Vaanchigbal Sambuu) is commonly referred as Bogd Khan. Bogd Khan most of all loved all sorts of curiosities and went around the shops, above all, mechanisms. It could be a unique museum, for example, mechanical games at the turn of the 20th century, because merchants tried hard to get something new for him, because Bogdo Khan was not stingy, but he wasn’t careful. Having lost interest in purchases, Bogdo Khan gave them to the servants for storage. After the death of Bogd Khan in May 1924, all his property was sold by auction. In the vacated premises, an exhibition of the Kozlov excavations of Noin-uly, and dinosaur eggs brought from Gobi Andrews was organized, and so began the main Mongolian museum, now the State Central Museum.
In Mongolia, there are currently more than 40 museums (including provincial museums). 9 of them have the status of "State" ("National"). After the democratic transformation of the 90s, many museums were renamed, and many new expositions were created. However, at present you may notice a rather disastrous situation of some museums.
The most visited museums are: the State History Museum, the Museum of the History of Nature, the Choyzhin Lama Monastery and the Bogd Khan Palace, the Museum of Fine Arts. Interestingly, museums are popular not only among foreign tourists, but also among Mongolian residents. Quite often you can see organized groups of students. The nature museum and the State Historical Museum are popular by children.
- State Museum of the History of Mongolia in Ulaanbaatar
The State National Historical Museum of Mongolia was opened for the 50th anniversary of the People’s Revolution in 1971. In the monumental building with a trumpeting rider on the facade there are ten halls that reflect the history of the country from the most ancient times to our time.
The first two rooms contain exhibits from the Paleolithic era. They contain archaeological material about ancient tribes and rich collections of finds from the Gobi desert - the skeletons of dinosaurs, petrified animals and plants. In the following rooms there are religious items of ancient cults, common in this region, various household items, weapons and equipment. The following rooms are devoted to folk musical instruments, elegant jewelry and traditional costume. The last halls reflect the Soviet era, the years of revolution and modern times. To explore all the floors of the museum, you will need about four hours of unhurried walk.
A special exhibition of clothing and accessories, coins and weapons, religious objects of worship has about 20 ethnic groups. The ethnographic section also shows the equipment of the yurt, kitchenware and musical instruments.
Address: Juulchin Street, POB 332
- Dinosaur Museum in Ulaanbaatar
The building of this museum was erected in the early eighties of the last century by Soviet builders and became the only museum building in Mongolia. Chief architect Louvsandor received a state award for his work. In 2006, the question of creating Genghis Khan’s museum in this building was discussed in parliament. After long disputes and courts, the museum building was given to the "dinosaur museum".
On the territory of Mongolia they found about 20 percent of the remains of ancient reptiles from all known in the world.
The paleontological center in Ulaanbaatar owns a unique collection of dinosaur remains, with which only American and Chinese scientists can compare.
Mongolian finds differ in great variety and, most importantly, the best preservation. This allows conducting research on materials found in Mongolia that has a high degree of reliability, which is extremely important for science.
The honor of the first discovery of fossil vertebrates belongs to the Russian travelers and geologists, especially V.Obruchev, who found the first tooth of the tertiary rhino in the color of Gobi deposits of Mongolia.
Address: Sambuugyin Gudamzh
- Palace of Bogd Khan in Ulan Bator
Among the fashionable houses in the center of the new Ulan Bator there is an unremarkable building, in which the last Khan of Mongolia, VIII Bogd Zhavzandamba and Queen Dondogdulam wintered for 20 years. Today, the Bogd Haan Palace Museum provides visitors with 8,124 interesting exhibits. Among them there are portraits of all Mongolian Bogd Khaans who lived in the 17th-20th centuries, a hat made of sandalwood leaves, presented to the first Bogd Khan Zanabazar by the fifth Dalai Lama, sculptures and paintings made by Zanabazar himself, etc.
The palace-residence of Bogd Khan is a remarkable architectural and artistic monument of the Mongolian culture of the late XIX-early XX centuries. This palace was built by the VIII Bogd Gegen Javdzandamba by the Hutugt, the last ruler of Mongolia. The construction of the complex began in 1893 and was completed in 1903. Simultaneously with the construction of the palace, first-class collections of works of Mongolian national painting, sculpture, and decorative and applied arts were formed, which became part of the interior decoration.
The Bogd Haan Museum consists of a summer and winter palace, which is often inspected by numerous foreign and domestic visitors.
Address: Khoroo 11
- Museum of Fine Arts named after Zanabadzar in Ulaanbaatar
The Museum of Fine Arts named after Zanabadzar was founded in 1965, and in 1985, on the occasion of the 350th anniversary of Zanabadzar, an outstanding sculptor and founder of Mongolian portrait painting, the museum was renamed in his honor.
The building in which the museum is located was built at the beginning of the 20th century, and is one of the first two-story Russian-style houses in Urga. It was built by a Russian merchant, but he did not live here for a long time. For many years, the building "wandered" - for some time it belonged to a Chinese bank, then it was given to the headquarters of the Soviet military contingent, in the 30s of the XX century it housed a central store, and in the 60s - the Union of Craftsmen. And only in 1966 the building was transferred to the newly created Museum of Fine Arts.
Currently, the museum holds more than 18 thousand exhibits. Permanent exhibitions are devoted to the life and work of Zanabadzar, early medieval art, religious painting-tank, application, Mongolian-Tibetan printing, etc. This is the largest repository of Mongolian art in the world.
Address: st. Zhuulchdyn, 38
- Museum of National Mongolian costumes in Ulaanbaatar
The museum of national Mongolian costumes is located near the central square of Ulaanbaatar. Both modern and ancient costumes of various ethnic groups living in the territory of modern Mongolia are presented. Also there are decorations, household items, religious articles, and the decoration of the Mongolian yurt.
The museum was opened on July 23, 2005. The main goal of the museum was to show foreign tourists the whole variety of Mongolian national costumes and remind young citizens of Mongolia about the ancient traditions and customs of their people.
Mongolian national costume has a rich history, has a centuries-old artistic traditions. It is closely connected with the way of life of the Mongolian people, the specifics of their economic structure, with the natural conditions of the country. The costume should correspond to a variety of everyday situations - whether a person rides a horse across the steppe, sits in his yurt, dances at a national holiday. The peculiarity of climatic conditions also affects the character of clothes - costumes designed for different seasons arise.
Address: Address: Olimpic Street-3
- Gallery of Contemporary Art in Ulan Bator
The Mongolian National Gallery of Modern Art was separated from the Museum of Fine Arts of Mongolia in 1989, and began its independent history to acquaint the public with Mongolian contemporary works of visual art.
Since its inception, the Mongolian National Gallery of Modern Art has strengthened its position as one of the leading art institutions in Mongolia, initiating national and international exhibitions. Every year the gallery actively participates in the organization of thematic or specialized exhibitions of original works of national and foreign individual artists; participates in exhibitions abroad, displaying works of art from his own collection or works of Mongolian artists.
Address: Central Cultural Palace-B, Sukhbaatar square-3
- Museum of History and Reconstruction of Ulan Bator
The museum of history of Ulan Bator is located in the city of the same name, Ulan Bator, the capital of Mongolia. It is located in the Bayanzurh area. The museum is dedicated to history and reconstruction of the capital of Mongolia. It was built by Buryat Tsogto Badmazhapov for personal use at the beginning of the 20th century.
In subsequent years, this building managed to be the general government headquarters, where the Central Committee of the Mongolian Communist Party met and D. Sukhe-Bator worked, as well as the TNR Embassy. After this, the building was given to the museum. But first the museum was dedicated to Sukhe Bator, and then another to Choibalsan.
And only in 1956, the first step was taken to the museum’s current subject matter - an exhibition dedicated to the history of Ulan Bator was opened. In 1960, the exhibition became permanent, and the museum was re-qualified. Since 1970, the museum building is an architectural monument of Mongolia at the beginning of the 20th century. The museum has about 4 thousand exhibits in the collection, including historical, archaeological and geological artifacts, various documents, drawings and diagrams, books, photographs, audio and video recordings, as well as many other exhibits devoted to Ulaanbaatar - its history and its present time.
Address: Bayanzurkh district, 13 neighborhood-2, Peace Avenue 10
- Museum of the History of Railway Engineering in Ulaanbaatar
This is a small museum, in the open area of which 6 railway locomotives are presented, which were operated on the Ulan Bator railway. All locomotives were produced in the Soviet Union (with the exception of the E-series locomotive produced in the United States by order of the USSR).
In 1915, the Mongolian Emperor VIII Bogd Zhavzandamba first issued a decree to the Minister of the Great Khural and members of the Khural on the development of the mining industry and the construction of the railway.
The Mongolian railway originates from the 43-kilometer narrow-gauge railway, built in 1938 from Ulaanbaatar to the mine at the Nalaikh station.
Today, the Mongolian Railway is one of the leading branches of Mongolia, on whose work the economic development of the whole country largely depends.
At the beginning of 2005, the operational technology of the Mongolian Railway was fundamentally changed, as a result of which the quality and quantity indicators of the road were improved: the turnover of railcars was doubled and the average train weight increased.
Address: Baga toiruu-42
- Mongolian Military Museum in Ulaanbaatar
The Museum of the Mongolian troops covers the centuries-old history of the Mongolian army. A huge amount of authentic historical documents, rare exhibits have been collected and stored, research and educational work is being carried out.
The Mongolian Military Museum was opened in Ulan Bator in 1996. The museum is subordinate to the Ministry of Defense of Mongolia. The Mongolian Military Museum has in its collection approximately 8,000 exhibits related to the history of the Mongol army. The Mongolian Military Museum is located in a separate building and has 2 large halls with exhibits telling about military formations, army structure, wars, and great generals of Mongolia. Exhibits cover the period from the Stone Age to the present.
The Military History Museum of Mongolia consists of two viewing rooms - A and B. The hall A exhibits are related to the ancient military history of Mongolia, and the hall B - memorable exhibits of the newest military history of Mongolia. The military equipment and weapons are tanks, aircraft, etc.
- Memorial House-Museum of Marshal of the Soviet Union G. K. Zhukov in Ulan Bator
The house-museum of Marshal of the Soviet Union G. K. Zhukov is a branch of the military museum of Mongolia. In 1939, under the leadership of Zhukov, in the area of the Khalkhin Gol River, Japanese troops were defeated, invading the territory of Mongolia, which had an allied treaty with the USSR. For this operation, Zhukov received his first star of the Hero of the Soviet Union, and in 1969 the Mongols awarded him the title of Hero of the Mongolian People's Republic. It is known that Zhukov, who possessed, probably, all the military awards existing in the world, valued this title, which reminded him of the beginning of his military career.
The Museum of Georgy Zhukov was opened on August 19, 1979, when G. K. Zhukov was no longer alive.
The core of the memorial complex is a cozy one-story house in the 15th micro district of Ulan Bator, where the Zhukov headquarters was located. In this house, he lived with his family after arriving from the Khalkhin Gol district in Ulan Bator, from October 1939 until May 1940. On the marble slabs in front of the entrance is carved in the Mongolian and Russian languages: “Georgy Zhukov lived and worked in this house. 1939-1940."
Address: Baga toiruu-42
- House of N. Roerich in Ulan Bator
The Roerich House-Museum in Ulaanbaatar is a complex of buildings, including a renovated house, in which the Roerich family spent the winter of 1926-1927 during their Central Asian expedition. The museum is located in the Bayanzurkh area, behind the Otgontanger University.
From September 1926 to March 1927, the Roerichs lived in the capital of the Mongolian People's Republic, Ulan Bator.
The opening of the house-museum took place on July 6, 2009, which was timed to the birthday of Dalai Lama XIV. On the eve of the courtyard in front of the house-museum was set iron stupa, made of recycled Soviet tanks.
The 108 volumes of Gandzhur, the statue of Buddha, the book “Shambala” by N. K. Roerich, “The Basics of Buddhism” by E. I. Roerich, and the “Tibetan tanks” by Yu. N. Roerich translated into Mongolian were placed inside.
The opening ceremony was attended by Canadian Buddhologist G. Mulin, who oversaw the work of collecting donations.
Address: r. Bayanzurh
- Theater Museum in Ulaanbaatar
The Mongolian Theater Museum is located in the very center of Ulaanbaatar, a few steps from Genghis Khan Square, occupies the north wing of the Central Palace of Culture.
The museum was opened in 1991. Its exposition acquaints visitors with the history and development of the traditional Mongolian theater, puppet theater, opera, music and circus art, as well as documentary and art cinema. The museum’s collection includes 9000 exhibits - theatrical costumes and props, Tsam masks, musical instruments, posters, librettos, programs of performances and circus performances, old photographs, newspapers and magazines with reviews of premieres of performances, photos and cinema cameras, which were used to make the first films in Mongolia, portraits and busts of famous actors, writers, musicians and other cultural figures.
One of the halls of the museum is dedicated to Ravdja Dulduytin Danzanravzhaa - the famous Mongolian poet and playwright, founder of the Mongolian theater, author of the translation of the classic Sanskrit play "The Life of the Moon Cuckoo", which became the first known theatrical production in the country. The museum offers fascinating excursions, educational programs for schoolchildren and students.
Address: North wing of Central Cultural Palace, A.Amar’s street
- Wax Museum in Ulaanbaatar
The Museum of Wax Figures of Genghis Khan is located in Ulaanbaatar near the famous Mongolian cashmere factory GOBI. The beginning of the museum was put by the exhibition of Chingiskhan's Wax Figures, which was opened in the premises of the Theater Museum in 2014. The exposition consisted of thirteen wax figures of famous historical figures of Mongolia of the XIII century - Genghis Khan, his mother Oulen-eh, his wife Burte, four sons - Ugedei, Juchi, Tolui and Kulhan, as well as the great Mongolian generals Börci, Zeav, Zhamuhi, Mouhuu, Zelme.
A large group of artists, sculptors, historians, designers and jewelers worked on the creation of wax figures - in addition to giving the sculptures maximum external resemblance to historical figures, the smallest details of clothing, weapons, armor and jewelry were recreated. Thus, the image of Princess Burte, wife of Genghis Khan, was created on the basis of her lifetime portrait, kept in the Taiwan State Museum, and Mongolia actor Agvaantserangiin Enkhtayvan, who played the role of founder of the Great Mongolian Empire in the movie "Under the eternal sky."
Since 2015, the museum occupies a separate building located next to the Gobi factory outlet.
Address: Gobi Factory Store, Khan-Uul district
- Mongolian intellectual museum in Ulaanbaatar
The museum, which is often called the Puzzles Museum, was opened in 1990, its founder and director is a Mongolian engineer and designer Tumen-Ulziy Zandraagiin, the author of 2,400 original puzzles, much of which are made in a single copy.
The museum has more than 11,000 exhibits from 130 countries of the world - puzzles, logic games, tricks for demonstration kits, chess, mechanical toys, puzzles made in the form of the Seven Wonders of the World, space ships, temples, yurts and animals. Among the exhibits there is a simple puzzle, consisting of only two parts, and a very complex one, consisting of 673 parts, to assemble which, 56831 actions are necessary.
The museum has a large collection of chess made of wood, bone, metal, and stone. Here you can see the biggest chess in the world, the length of which is 7.6 meters. The board and all the pieces of this chess are made in the form of puzzles, that is, they can be assembled and disassembled. Black figures depict the historical characters of Mongolia - Genghis Khan, Empress Manduhai, Tsogt Taizha and others, white figures depict politicians, famous athletes and cultural figures.
Address: Bayanzurkh district, 13 neighborhood-2, Peace Avenue 10
- Museum of Geology (Mongolian State University of Science and Technology) in Ulaanbaatar
The museum was founded in 1969. The museum includes more than 4,000 samples of minerals (minerals and samples) collected in different years throughout Mongolia. The museum has a map of the geological structure of Mongolia. Interesting for professionals.
Address: Ulaanbaatar, Sukhebaatar district, Baga toiruu-42
- Museum of Archeology in Ulan Bator
It was created in 2011 on the basis of the Department of Archeology of the Institute "Ulaanbaatar" of the Mongolian State University. This museum is the result of labor and basic research of the Department of Archeology in recent years.
Address: University Street 1
- Memorial Museum to the victims of political repression in Ulan Bator
The museum was opened in 1996 on the initiative of Palzhidiin Gandan's daughter - Prime Minister of the Mongolian People's Republic in 1932-1936. Genden prevented repression against the Buddhist clergy, for which he was removed from his post and shot in 1937.
During the repressions of the 1930s, more than 36,000 people were executed in Mongolia (5% of the total population of the country), among the repressed - 17,000 lamas, military leaders and party leadership of the Mongolian People's Republic, representatives of the Mongolian intelligentsia and national minorities. The most "bloody" in the history of Mongolia were the years 1937-1939 - with the coming to power of Khorlogiyn Choibalsan, 28,185 people were arrested, of which 20,988 were sentenced to death and executed.
After the victory of the Democratic Revolution of 1990 in Mongolia, the process of rehabilitation of the repressed in the 30s of the XX century began.
The museum presents personal belongings of the executed, photographs, archival documents and lists of 20,000 people shot in 1937-1939. In one of the halls of the museum are collected "witnesses" of the crimes of those times - the skull of the people shot with bullet holes in the frontal bone.
Address: Genden Street, Sukhbaatar District
- Museum of the history of the diplomatic service in Ulan Bator
The Handdorzh Chinvana House is an architectural monument of Mongolia in the early 20th century. Belonged to the outstanding figure of the national revolution, statesman, diplomat M. Handdorzh. It is located on Seoul Street in the area of Sukhe Bator.
In 1923 the building was ceded to the Scientific Committee of Mongolia. As part of the campaign to take the building of monuments of history and culture of the Mongolian People's Republic in 1941-1948, the building was awarded a second degree state protection.
In 2010, it was decided to open a museum of diplomacy and international relations in Mongolia to mark the centenary of the country's diplomatic service.
The ground floor of a two-story building is made of brick and wood, originally served to live in the winter. The upper, fully glazed floor intended for the summer period, as well as the wooden roof, are made in the style of Chinese architecture. The building is an important monument of Mongolian residential architecture and is characterized by a number of decorative differences from traditional Mongolian temple architecture.
Address: st. Seoul